- Meaningful reality requires
- people to convey meanings to themselves
- people to convey meanings to others
- conveying meanings occurs symbolically
- one must act towards oneself as if one was someone else
Self is : to be both object and subject of one's own thoughts, feelings, and actions.
The Self as Sentiment and Reflection, by Charles Horton Cooley
- immediately excludes philosophers' discussions of self (Uuggghh!!! Why?)
- establishes that he will be discussing the empirical self as apprehended by ordinary observation
- "I" includes reference to other persons simply by the fact that language itself is social not private
- "Where there is no communication there can be no nomenclature and no developed thought." p 152
- looking glass self; we imagine how others see us; has three principles
- "the imagination of our appearance to the other person"
- "the imagination of his judgment of that appearance"
- "some sort of self-feeling, such as pride or mortification" p 153
The Self as Social Structure, by George Herbert Mead
- self is an object to itself
- self is "a social structure, and it arises in social experience" p 157
- we experience ourselves from the perspective of other individuals in our social group or from the general view of the group as a whole
- gesture are the beginning of communication; we first gesture with ourselves
- "I" is one's reaction to one's experience of the attitude of his group
- "I" appears in memory
- "me" is our adjustment to the world present in our nature
- language is more than gesture; language is significant symbol
- because social stimuli affect us in similar way as it affects others
- by this we understand the meaning of what we say to others
- Play - to take the role of another and how he/she sees you
- Game - to take the role of the group and how it as a whole sees you
- "in the game then, there is a set of responses of such others so organized that the attitude of the one calls out the attitude of the others" p 159
- this organization is thought of as the "rules of the game" p 159
2011, Inside social life, 6th ed. Cahill, S., & Sandstrom, K.L. eds. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.